Soap is one of the most important discoveries and industries that are used daily and continuously in all parts of the world, and we cannot imagine that it is possible to pay attention to personal hygiene without using soap, and it is one of the industries that has continued since it was discovered until this day, and the cleaning materials industry is developing with continuous development. In science and technology, in recent times many different types of soap have appeared, and to learn about the history of soap making, follow us.
Why was the soap so called?
The name soap was launched on this invention, as it is a Persian word that was translated from the word Sabon, and the substance of soap contains many different salts and fats that are added when manufacturing, and it is one of the substances that can dissolve easily when interacting with water.
The basic substance that is used in the manufacture of soap can be obtained through the roots of the pilus plant, and the substance is obtained after the roots are crushed and placed in water to be soaked.
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How to make soap in factories
The main components that go into making soap are fats or oils, and there are two ways to do the process of making soap, and these methods are as follows:
The method of making cold soaps
It is considered one of the most economical methods of making soap.
The advantage of the cold method is that it does not require any financial costs, especially for small factories.
The soap is made in a cold way by adding glycerin with the soap without the separation process.
The hot method of making soap
The large factories rely on the hot method of making soap.
Many types of glycerin are used that are carefully selected and taken care of, resulting in a high price.
A good type of glycerin helps produce a good type of soap.
The process of making soap is done by the hot method, and the steps are as follows:
The saponification process begins in a pot weighing up to 150 tons.
The used fat is placed halfway in the saucepan and the amount cannot be increased.
The saucepan full of fat is heated to 100 ° C.
The heating process takes place through steam.
After reaching the required temperature, caustic soda is added, but not all at once, but gradually.
After the reaction between caustic soda and fats takes place, caustic soda is added, but with a stronger concentration, and also in successive batches to maintain the high temperature, which reaches the boiling point.
The soap process is up to 24 hours and the soap is tested to ensure that the process ends correctly.
After making sure that the saponification process is finished, glycerin and water are separated.
The separation process between water and glycerin is done through the use of table salt.
Leave the mixture in a saucepan until the temperature reaches 60 degrees.
The separation of the soap from the water and glycerin lasts for five days.
Human-use colors are added and perfumes are added.
Some materials that help to double the volume of soap are placed, such as sodium silicate.
After making sure that perfumes and colors are mixed into the soap, they are placed in their own molds and then the name of the soap brand is placed on it.